History of the Hospice Movement
The word 'hospice' was first
used from the 4th century when Christian orders welcomed travellers, the
sick and those in many kinds of need. It was first applied to the care
of dying patients by Mme Jeanne Garnier who founded the Dames de Calaire
in Lyon, France, in 1842. The name was next introduced by the Irish
Sisters of Charity when they opened Our Lady's Hospice in Dublin in 1879
and St Joseph's Hospice in Hackney, London(1905).
Saunders' experiences while working at St Joseph's and at St Luke's
Hospital (Home for the Dying Poor founded in 1893) led to the founding
by her of St Christopher's Hospice in 1967.
charitable organisations, Marie Curie Cancer Care and The Sue Ryder
Foundation have also played an important role in providing specialised
care for dying people and their families. The 11 Marie Curie Homes were
developed in the 1950s and the Sue Ryder Homes began to emerge in the
The growth pattern of hospices in recent years has been
considerable. In the first few years after the opening of St
Christopher's development was mainly in the independent, charitable
sector. In the early 1970s the National Society for Cancer Relief (now
known as Macmillan Cancer Relief) began a programme whereby capital
grants were given to units built within NHS hospital grounds with health
authorities taking over responsibility for their running costs.
and palliative care have developed in different ways, appropriate to
the needs of patient and family - inpatient care, home care, day care
and hospital services.
The different categories of patient care provided by hospices and palliative care centres are as follows:
or Voluntary Hospices - these units are registered charities financed
mainly by charitable income. They have firm links in policy and practice
with the National Health Service but receive only partial funding from PCTs. In addition to inpatient care most hospices provide
home care, day services and bereavement support. Some buildings are
purpose built, while others may have been established in a converted
building. Units range in size from 2 to 63 beds.
Marie Curie Centres
are administered by the national charity, Marie Curie Cancer Care. In
addition to 11 homes there are 6000 part-time Marie Curie Nurses who
nurse patients in their own homes.
Sue Ryder Homes administered
by the national charity, the Sue Ryder Foundation, provide palliative
care for patients with cancer in all of their homes, and several have
visiting nurses who attend patients in their own homes, both before
admission and after returning home.
Macmillan Cancer Care Units.
Macmillan Cancer Relief has funded and built many inpatient and day
patient units, mostly on hospital sites and now being funded and
operated by the National Health Service. Macmillan has also funded, or
part funded, several units operated by the voluntary sector.
Care Wards/Units in NHS Hospitals. Some hospitals have designated units
or wards where patients benefit from the principles and practice of
hospice care. Some Care Homes practice the principles of Hospice care.